1. Introduction: Legality
  2. History of Amanita Muscaria / Substance
  3. Pharmacology of Amanita Muscaria
  4. Microdosing Amanita Muscaria
  5. Risks of microdosing Amanita & Toxicity


Amanita muscaria is a fungus with several known variations or subspecies. These subspecies are slightly different, but they are all usually called fly agarics, and they are most of the time recognisable by their noticeable white spots. The original name Amanita muscaria comes from the ancient Greek αμανίτης (amanítis), modern amānītai—Amanita (a fungus) + Latin musca (“fly”). Amanita muscaria is widespread throughout the Earth and is present on all continents from far north to south, occurring in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, North America, Central America, and South America.

In the Us and Canada, Amanita muscaria is considered food and is principally regulated under the Federal Drug Act and the Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act in Canada and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and The Nutrition Labelling and Education Act in the USA. The mushroom was not covered under a regulation introduced in January 2006 under the Misuse of Drugs Acts to outlaw the sale and possession of magic mushrooms containing psilocybin (Worldwide). It is therefore legal in most countries. As a result, it is easier to list the countries where it is not legal. These include Australia, Romania, The Netherlands, and Thailand.

N.B. Although Amanita Muscaria is not an illegal substance (in most countries) we do not encourage the use of this substance. However, we are aware that the psychedelic renaissance has created a trend of usage in the population, and for this reason, we are motivated to support people and offer information to keep people safe. N.B. It’s up to you to make a well-considered choice, knowing the effects and potential risks, as documented herewith

History of Amanita Muscaria / Substance

The Amanita muscaria mushroom has been used since ancient times. It is most likely the oldest entheogen/mushroom known to humans. Early art depictions of this mushroom have been found in caves in the Algerian Sahara, dating from 9,500 to 7,000 BCE, and predating that, in Tanzania to Siberia. It is, for this reason, the Amanita muscaria has been called the gatekeeper of all mushrooms. It is very much connected with mysticism. Reports of its use go back as far as 50,000 years. The use of the psychoactive element of Amanita (entheogenic use) has existed for centuries among Siberian, European, and Pan-American shamanic peoples. The mysteries of ancient Greece (the Mysteries of Dionysus) and Rome (Mithraic Mysteries) detail reports of this mushroom being associated with the original Vedic plant god (Soma). There are even some symbols that might correspond with Buddhist myths in southern Asian traditions. Legendary biographies of some Buddhist adepts from the second and ninth centuries include some clues that can be interpreted to reveal that they were consuming the Amanita muscaria mushrooms to achieve enlightenment. In the Germanic tradition, there are texts linking the Amanita Muscaria to the god Odin. Some species of the Amanita are called ‘Fly Agaric’. There are many stories around Europe relating to the origins of this name. One English mycologist John Ramsbottom reported that Amanita muscaria was used for getting rid of bugs in England and Sweden, and bug agaric was an old alternative name for some species. Amanita muscaria can vary considerably in its morphology, and many authorities recognise several subspecies or varieties within the species. In The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy, German mycologist Rolf Singer listed three subspecies but there are more.

Known as mukhomor in Russia, the Amanita muscaria toadstool features in the legends and folklore of the indigenous peoples of Siberian tribes, like the Chukchi, Koryaks, Kamchadals, Yakuts, and Yukagirs. Amanita muscaria was used as medicine, for rituals, as a food source, and as a ceremonial drink. Descriptions of its use by the peoples in the farthest Northeast regions of Siberia were documented in the middle of the eighteenth century by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. In this part of the World, there are many modern-day reports of continued use of mukhomor, both recreationally and medicinally, and similarly, the traditions of old have not completely died out in the Balkin and Slovic regions of Europe where a minority of the rural population still forage for the mushroom, using the old methods, to make remedies and even to cook the mushroom in a way that will detoxify it to create a food source

Pharmacology of Amanita Muscaria

Despite Amanita muscaria having very strong psychedelic associations in popular culture, it would not be considered psychedelic based on the formal definition. Most compounds considered psychedelic are structurally related to the neurotransmitters serotonin or dopamine (which are 5-HT2A agonists), for example, the “classic” psychedelics like LSD, psilocybin/psilocin, and/or mescaline. The chemical constituents of Amanita muscaria are Ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscarine, and muscazone (including Amanita pantherina), the primary being muscimol and the isoxazole alkaloid ibotenic acid. The remaining compounds appear in small amounts. The compounds cross the blood-brain barrier and act on the central nervous system.

The chemical constituents of Amanita muscaria have been thoroughly investigated and these four chemicals are found in most species of Amanita muscaria throughout the world. The website inchem.org explains that they are related and are all isoxazole derivatives. Detailed mycological data have already been published - see Ref: Keys to Agarics and Boleti; Bresinsky and Besl, A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Fungi; Takashi et al., “Molecular Phylogeny of Japanese Amanita Species Based on Nucleotide Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA,” 57–64; Néville and Poumarat, “Étude sur les Variations du Complexe d’Amanita muscaria,” 277–381.


Ibotenic acid (a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-isoxazole acetic acid) is an analogue of the neurotransmitter glutamate, which acts as a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist. Ibotenic acid is water-soluble. Any attempt at dehydration leads to the decarboxylation of ibotenic acid, turning it into muscimol. Ibotenic acid is decarboxylated to muscimol in the body. The molecular formula is C5H6N2O4.


Muscimol (3-hydroxy-5-aminomethyl-isoxazole) is a GABA analog, a specific agonist of the GABAA receptor. Muscimol is also water-soluble. The molecular formula is C4H6N2O2.


Muscarine (4-hydroxy-5-methyloxolan-2-ylmethyl-trimethylazanium) is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied. Muscarine mimics the function of the natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the muscarinic part of the cholinergic nervous system. Muscarine is only a trace compound in the Amanita muscaria. The molecular formula C9H20NO2.

As mentioned, other active constituents detected in Amanita muscaria are also only in trace amounts

A fresh Amanita muscaria contains 258–471 ppm of ibotenic acid with the entirety of the fungi. Nearly all the ibotenic acid is concentrated in the caps. Typically, the ibotenic acid to muscimol ratio of fungal cap tissue would be 9:1 or greater in fresh samples. A portion of the ibotenic acid converts to muscimol while drying Amanita muscaria, so the conversion is incomplete and highly variable depending on conditions. As mentioned, Ibotenic acid is water-soluble and dehydration leads to decarboxylation of the acid constituent, which will in fact turn it into muscimol. Ibotenic acid is also decarboxylated to muscimol in the body. There are variables of opinion on the usefulness of “decarbing” before consuming.

To give you an example of a study on the different metabolic compositions of caps and stems when studied separately we refer to the following paper (example below)

Change in Ibotenic Acid and Muscimol Contents in Amanita muscaria during Drying, Storing or Cooking (*Food Hygienic Studies of Toxigenic Basidiomycotina. III)

KOUJun TSUNODA*2, Norik0 INOUE*Z, Yasuo AOYAGI*3 and Tatsuyukl SUGAHARA*4:

Change in Ibotenic Acid and Muscimol Contents in Amanita muscaria during Drying, Storing or Cooking
Change in Ibotenic Acid and Muscimol Contents in Amanita muscaria during Drying, Storing or Cooking * (*Food Hygienic Studies of Toxigenic Basidiomycotina. III)

Amanita muscaria fungus contains analogues. These chemical compounds, Ibotenic acid and muscimol are structurally related to each other and to two major neurotransmitters of the central nervous system: glutamic acid and GABA respectively. Ibotenic acid and muscimol act like these neurotransmitters, muscimol being a potent GABAA agonist, while ibotenic acid is an agonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and certain metabotropic glutamate receptor, promoting cell-to-cell communication within the nervous system. These neurotransmitter receptors play a vital role in the normal functioning of the nervous system. Controlled modulation of neurotransmitter receptors is critical to the human system, allowing for signalling between nerve cells and effector organs.

Microdosing Amanita Muscaria


This is not advice. We are not condoning the recreational use of this mushroom. You are responsible for your own research on how this substance interacts with the neural pathways and making decisions on usage. We, as a team, will support you to consider the safety, and integration of change, as external witnesses to the process you decide on.

So we know GABA plays a major role in the healthy functioning of the body’s immune and endocrine systems. It also supports the regulation of appetite, pain relief, stress, anxiety, lower blood pressure, sleep, mood, etc. While people do experiment with various psychoactive compounds as part of a microdosing regimen, there is little known about the positive effects of microdosing Fly Agaric/Amanita Muscaria. However, it may be very relevant to consider these known compounds as being pertinent to the overall potential outcome of engaging in a regime. People have historically used subliminal amounts of this mushroom in homoeopathic remedies for depression, and in tinctures for pain management and some report it helping their epilepsy.

It is important to mention that people should NOT compare psilocybin mushrooms with this fungus. They are completely different, in fact, they are NOTHING alike, as they have completely different compounds.

Reported benefits of this substance from a microdosing regime

  • Supports the body's immune system/defences, by offering the body tissue and nervous system support, promoting balance and calm. When the nervous system is not agitated (fight/flight/anxiety) the body is better able to cope with infection
  • Increases levels of GABA and in turn serotonin which supports a calmer mind, switching off the overactivity of the brain
  • Improves sleep, which offers the body more rest and in turn changes the energy levels of the body.

Here’s the thing, the international pharmacological industry has yet to carry out studies on a comprehensive scale and so medicinal data is limited. showing. This includes a gap in reliable data on the systematic reception of this substance in microdoses, and the nosology or transcontinental ranges when assessing the human body’s response. You can refer to books likeMicrodosing with Amanita Muscaria: Creativity, Healing, and Recovery with the Sacred Mushroom where you can read over 800 personal accounts of people using the mushroom. Because of the legal context, based on the author's location, the unfortunate thing is these results have not been registered as legitimate in the mainstream channels. Multiple websites offer accounts/community forums relating to microdosing benefits which include accounts of people using this substance to support their weaning off pharmaceuticals, get clearer focus, and increase enthusiasm.

Risks of microdosing Amanita & Toxicity

In this context, we are looking at the risks of MICRO not MACRO dosing *We list macrodose risks below but we do not support or condone macrodosing of this substance.

N.B. Sleeping medication (like Ambien) uses the same GABA pathways as Amanita and Antihistamines, and cough medicine like Benadryl have similar counterintuitive issues, so when using Allergy meds or medication with sleep effects microdosing should definitely not be considered

Regular consumption of the mushroom could be harmful, even though most human poisoning cases do not report any aftereffects, microdosing over long periods of time could result in a build-up in the internal organs and therefore have adverse effects, like muscle fasciculation, convulsions, or slow poisoning. Following a recommended protocol is essential when considering this substance.


Deaths from this substance have been reported in historical journal articles and newspaper reports but with modern medical treatment, fatal poisoning from ingesting this mushroom is extremely rare. If Amanita muscaria is ingested for a psychoactive experience in a ‘macro-dose’, it can take up to two hours for the full effects to appear and are characterised by GABAergic effects like drowsiness, hallucinations, dysphoria, dizziness, delirium, glutaminergic effects of hyperactivity, ataxia, hallucinations, myoclonus, and seizures. As the mushroom contains both muscimol and ibotenic acid there is potential ingestion that may result in adverse cardiac effects. Interestingly, a prognosis of poisoning is generally minor, and lethal cases are very seldom. Ibotenic acid and muscimol affect the gut and the smooth muscles that surround your organs and it can send them into intense spasms that can be pretty severe, so there are definite subsequent gastrointestinal disorders with vomiting that are consistently reported. No organ damage has been reported, to date, although the active components may induce in vivo brain lesions based on lab tests on rats.

If you read the reports offered by mainstream media (e.g. Wikip) you’ll see a leaning towards harm which would relate to the intention to reduce risk, which is understandable, but not substantiated. For example:

As there is a wide range of psychoactive effects that have been variously described as depressant, sedative-hypnotic, psychedelic, dissociative, or deliriant; paradoxical effects such as stimulation may occur however. Perceptual phenomena such as synesthesia, macropsia, and micropsia may occur; the latter two effects may occur either simultaneously or alternatingly, as part of Alice in Wonderland syndrome, collectively known as dysmetropsia, along with related distortions pelopsia and teleopsia. Some users report lucid dreaming under the influence of its hypnotic effects.

NOTE: Preparation and Protocol information for this substance will only be shared IF you are working with us directly on a microdosing support program.